Man, it’s cold out there! I wonder where the snakes and turtles are? Well, they can’t migrate so they must be here somewhere.
Reptiles, such as turtles, lizards and snakes, like so many other animals, have to figure out how to survive our cold long winters. Generally, they go underwater or underground and hibernate; or do they? Actually, they do assuredly use aquatic and subterranean habitats but they don’t actually hibernate, instead they brumate. Hibernation is when animals go into deep continual physiological sleep.
Brumation is similar to hibernation, but it differs, in that brumating reptiles lower their metabolic and heart rate, but remain mostly conscious, and sometimes even active. Snakes will sometime come out of their hibernacula (i.e. underground overwintering places) and sun themselves on bright days and turtles may be seen swimming under the ice occasionally.
Preparing for winter, most reptiles eat heartily for a while then stop feeding shortly before they brumate, so the food can be digested and turned into fat for storage. Their metabolic rate is so low they can fast for months until spring, when they resume feeding. Unlike mammals, reptiles also build up large reserves of glycogen, a sugar they use to ‘feed’ their muscles. Again, unlike in mammals, their stored fat seems to be reserved to assist them with egg development and reproduction, once they emerge from brumation.
Breathing in the winter however, can be tricky. Snakes that stay underground are fine, as the hibernacula are not airtight, but what does a turtle, living underwater, do? Well it can extract oxygen directly from the water through its cloaca (e.g. sort of like their bum). The stored glycogen in their blood assists them in being able to tolerate lower oxygen levels, which is obviously beneficial as they live in an oxygen-poor environment.
Reptiles must drink during brumation or they will dehydrate, whereas mammals don’t need to drink water to survive hibernation. Reptiles must also regulate their body temperature as they are cold-blooded (i.e. ectothermic). Reptiles need to determine when they need to slow down their metabolic, circulatory and respiratory rates. The timing is critical; if they start too soon they may not survive a prolonged cold, and if they start too late, well it might be too late. The cues as to when to start come from two sources: Endogenous cues (e.g. hormones and circadian rhythms) come from within the animal, and exogenous cues (e.g. photoperiod, barometric pressure, temperature, and humidity) come from the environment in which the reptile lives.
So let’s take a few moments to also look at amphibians and their survival mechanisms. Many of our aquatic frogs hibernate underwater, but are not buried in the mud as many sources report. Rather they lie on the bottom of a pond or lake, either fully exposed or only partially buried. Due to their physiological processes, they would suffocate if totally buried, as they can’t extract oxygen from the substrate the same way a turtle can. Terrestrial frogs (such as the American Toad) dig deeply (i.e. below the frost line) into the soil to overwinter. Other terrestrial frogs, such as the Spring Peeper and Wood Frog, are not good diggers so will often hide in crevices and under logs and leaf litter, freezing solid for the winter.
Overwintering frogs, like the reptiles, store large amounts of glycose in their blood, which prevents vital organs from freezing, even though much of the animal is in fact frozen solid (e.g. bladder, body cavity and the skin). Uric acid is combined inside the body with glycogen to reduce the potential of freezing the organs, by limiting the amount of ice that can form inside the frog’s cells. So the tissues and non-vital organs can freeze, but the important cells and organs remain unfrozen. When it thaws, the heart resumes beating and respiration commences, the frog revives, and life processes resume. Amazing.
Get ready - these amazing critters will become active soon. I can’t wait to hear my first Spring Peepers calling from the wetland behind my home.
Geoff Carpentier is a published author, expedition guide and environmental consultant. Visit Geoff on-line at www.avocetnatureservices.com and on LinkedIn and Facebook.
You will recall I talked about some unusual terms to describe weather phenomena last column. I thought I would continue in that vein and share some more that I’ve found.
Storm chasers will know, derechos are winds that strike in straight lines, often accompanying thunderstorms. The damage they cause is from a downdraft, where the winds rush toward the earth then fan out laterally on impact. Tornadoes can be referred to as twirlblasts, while sheet rain is called a pikel and a zephyr is a gentle breeze (from the word zephyros - the ancient Greek word for west wind).
Messengers (sunbeams breaking through a thick cloud), catatumbo lightning (named after a phenomenon originating in the Catatumbo River valley of Venezuela), virgae (precipitation that falls from clouds but never reaches the ground), flanking line (cumulus clouds that stream out from the side of a storm) and weathergaws (rainbows) are terms one might also use to describe features associated with weather.
Now these next few are going to sound like I’m making them up, but they are real, according to some reputable sources. No, I’m not going to tout Sharknado as a real phe-nomenon, but did you know Firenado is a term used by meteorologists, according to the US Bureau of Land Management. It’s a phenomenon created when hot, dry air rises rapidly from the ground, generally as a result of intense forest or grass fires. In the same vein, Accu-weather describes a Gustnado as a short-lived, swirling wind that may form along the leading edge of a severe thunderstorm.
Here’s one I don’t even know how to interpret, a bomb cyclone. According to an article by Brittany Bennett, on the website www.bustle.com, the Weather Channel defines this condition as “having undergone bombogenesis or bombing-out”. In short, it happens when a low pressure system drops rapidly, resulting in a bomb-like explosion of winter weather. It could cause some intense conditions, including snow, wind and ice. USA Today goes on to say Bombogenesis is a process by which the barometric pressure plummets, bringing strong winds and a rapidly intensifying storm.
Did you know, a drunken forest, according to National Geographic, is a forest comprised of slanting trees? This is reportedly caused by the differential melting of permafrost, where one side (south-facing) melts faster than the other side of the tree, and it subsequently tilts to the sunward side. This phenomenon is also evident when prevailing winds persist and force a tree to grow in the same direction the wind blows. The Group of Seven showcased this phenomenon in many of their paintings.
In the odds and sods category, hunch weather is windy and drizzly, so much so that one has to hunch over just to walk. This was first coined in the British Isles, where hunch weather is a way of life! Queen’s weather will be seen on bright sunny days, much like the kind Queen Victoria always seemed to enjoy when she made public appearances in the 1800s. A smuir refers to hot and humid weather, while, unrelated, a blind smuir is a snow drift. Speaking of snow, a blenky (not to be confused with blankie, which one uses to cuddle before a fire) means light snow that will drift down to earth, much like ashes or cinders. Its derivation likely is from the word blenks, an earlier 18th century word. A sun-pillar, caused by sunlight reflecting off ice crystals in the atmosphere, occurs when light streaks out from the top or bottom of the sun, creating a pillar-like effect. A mackerel sky is one checkered with cirrocumulus clouds that resemble fish scales, while a Whale's mouth cloud is a massive, dark cloud that literally looks like a whale’s open mouth. These clouds arrive after the passing of a shelf cloud, also known as an arcus, which mark the boundary between a downdraft and updraft of a thunderstorm.
So there you have it; weather can be strange, but weather words are stranger!
Geoff Carpentier is a published author, expedition guide and environmental consultant. Visit Geoff on-line, at www.avocetnatureservices.com and on LinkedIn and Facebook.
Geoff Carpentier is a published author, ecotour guide and environmental consultant. Visit Geoff on-line, at www.avocetnatureservices.com and on LinkedIn and Facebook.